YURTDIŞI EĞİTİM DANIŞMANIM BENİ ARASIN
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    Teknopark Floor:2 Number:214

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

  • Steam Boiler Selling Firms
     
    In our country, which sells steam boiler, it is not only the fact that the steam boiler is the most important, but the company that you will get the steam boiler must have the certificates required for the boiler. it is the CE certificate at the very beginning of the documents.

     

    In our country, which sells steam boiler, it is not only the fact that the steam boiler is the most important, but the company that you will get the steam boiler must have the certificates required for the boiler. it is the CE certificate at the very beginning of the documents.

  • Basic Concepts Related to Steam Boiler
    Basic concepts:
    
    Saturation temperature: The temperature at which the water starts to boil at the given pressure is called the saturation temperature.
    
    Saturation pressure: The pressure at which the water starts to boil is called the saturation pressure.
    
    Compressed liquid: A given pressure is defined as the compressed liquid if the temperature of the water is below the saturation temperature.
    
    Saturated liquid: At a given pressure, it is at the saturation temperature corresponding to that pressure, in which the vapor-free water is called a saturated liquid. Water is at the beginning of evaporation.
    
    Saturated vapor: At a given pressure, it is at the saturation temperature corresponding to that pressure and the entire water is in the vapor phase.
    
    Hot steam: If the temperature of the steam at a given pressure is higher than the saturation temperature at that pressure, steam is hot steam.
  • What is Industrial Energy?
    It is called the power that is found in an object and is used to create a work. Life in the world has been caused by the energy in the universe.
     
    Most of this energy comes from the sun. Solar energy is accumulated in coal, on board, in gasoline. The sun allows the waters on the earth to evaporate and rain, thus creating the streams that are an energy source. Humanity has progressed in parallel with the discovery of new energy sources.
     
    Energy is one of two important elements of physics, the first being mass. Physics scholars claim that energy mass has two separate states of the same idea. Many forms of energy can be obtained by chemical changes. One of the most important energy sources is found in the atomic nucleus. The energy of a system is the maximum work that a system can do. Work is described as an object in physics, manipulation by a force, displacement.
     
    If W (F.) is indicated by the force (F) and strength of the object (x), W = F.x. The velocity of the applied objects changes. Since all the moving objects have speed, they can also be extracted from the energy described above. In other words, the objects having the speed have a force. They can do business with this force.
     
    It is because of the energy that the two bottles, which collide rapidly, break each other. This energy is called "kinetic energy." Kinetic energy is equal to half of the mass of the body and the velocity of its velocity (E = 1/2 mv2). If an object standing in a frictionless environment acts under the influence of a force (F) and gains one (x) speed at the end (v), the work done by the force is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the object (F.x = 1/2 mv2). If force affects the moving object, then the work on that object is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of that object.
     
    energy
     
    Potential energy: They are capable of doing work due to their condition. The gravitational potential energy is the energy that the objects under the gravitational force of the earth have at a certain height from the ground. The work they can do is given by multiplying the masses, the acceleration of gravity and the height they are in. In potential energy = m.g.h, g denotes gravitational acceleration and its value is constant. Because flexible bodies are capable of compressing and elongating by force application, they can have potential energy. That is, they can store the work done on them as a potential energy because of a force.
     
    The potential energy accumulated by a spring is given by a constant number indicating its elasticity and by half of the product of the square of the amount of elongation and compression. In the formula E = 1/2 k.x2 the constant k is called the spring constant and indicates the degree of rigidity of the spring. Kinetic energy and potential energy are called mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is conservative. There may be changes between them. As a high stone falls, its potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy.
     
    When a moving object compresses a spring, the kinetic energy becomes the patential energy that the spring accumulates. The potential energy of a falling body of water turns into kinetic energy. This kinetic energy can turn a turbine. If the rotating shaft of this turbine rotates the stirrer in a water container, the temperature in the vessel appears to rise. The heat gained by the water is the kinetic energy of the water that rotates the turbine.
     
    So heat is also an energy. Heated objects can do work. When the bottom of a container filled with gas is heated, it is seen that the lid of the container is raised. Thus, the heat energy has turned into potential energy. The energy of an object at temperature T is given by the formula 1/2 K.T2. K is the Boltzmann constant. In the theory of relativity, it has been shown that each substance corresponds to an energy. The mass of an object multiplied by the square of the speed of light gives the energy equivalent of that substance (E = M.C2).
     
    Modern physics revealed that the transfer of energy was in very small quantities (energy packages). These small amounts (energy packets) are called quanta. This state of energy is called the quantum. In the broadest sense, energy conservation means that the amount of energy does not change even if the name changes. For example, the mass disappears, but the energy that the mass corresponds to returns to the heat energy.
     
    Energy laws
    The electromagnetic waves emitted by the sun carry energy. Therefore, the sun is an important source of energy. The amount of solar energy in industry is 4x10 33 erg. In the sun, the hydrogen atoms, which have lost their electrons due to high temperatures, enter nuclear reactions with each other and become the helium nucleus and the mass loss in the reaction is revealed in the form of energy.
  • What is Steam
    Steam: called the gas state of the water. Water and therefore steam is a pure substance.
    
    Thermodynamic properties are found in tables or diagrams (Mollier diagram). Two
    
    other properties can also be calculated or identified from diagrams and tables
    
    
    Be ..
    
    How is Steam Formed?
    Vapor, liquid or solid state is formed by evaporation or sublimation. Of water
    
    during evaporation, an equal amount of liquid or solid particles into the gas
    
    a dynamic equilibrium in which the gaseous state returns.
  • What is Steam Boiler
    What is steam?
    
    Steam: called the gas state of the water. Water and therefore steam is a pure substance.
    
    Thermodynamic properties are found in tables or diagrams (Mollier diagram). Two
    
    other properties can also be calculated or identified from diagrams and tables
    
    Be ..
    
    How is Steam Formed?
    
    Vapor, liquid or solid state is formed by evaporation or sublimation. Of water
    
    during evaporation, an equal amount of liquid or solid particles into the gas
    
    a dynamic equilibrium in which the gaseous state returns.
  • What are Boiler Types

     

    Natural Circulating Boilers Flame Tubular Boilers; Angry gases formed by combustion of fuel, pass through pipes and evaporate water If found outside the pipes, such boilers are called flame tube boilers. Although it is variable, 2/3 of the boiler is arranged as water and 1/3 as steam volume. The main characteristics of flame tube boilers are: • Due to the large volume of water, they store a significant amount of water. • The most important control and control point in all steam boilers is the water level. • All water is burned, except for one side of the burner or furnace where the fuels are burned Due to heat losses are less and boiler efficiency becomes higher. • It is always recommended to use softened water. • Heating surfaces are small and the amount of steam they produce is approximately 250 tons. The heating surface is in contact with the gas flowing between the furnace and the flue They are surface. (Available up to 30 t / h and 30 bar.) Vapor retention times are too long; and the intermediate load times are shorter. (Steam holding time: water to boiler the time until the steam is obtained at the operating pressure after it has been removed. • Pressure and temperature of the steam they produce is low. This pressure is maximum 30 bar can be produced up to pressure.

    Natural Circulating Boilers Flame Tubular Boilers; Angry gases formed by combustion of fuel, pass through pipes and evaporate water If found outside the pipes, such boilers are called flame tube boilers. Although it is variable, 2/3 of the boiler is arranged as water and 1/3 as steam volume. The main characteristics of flame tube boilers are: • Due to the large volume of water, they store a significant amount of water. • The most important control and control point in all steam boilers is the water level. • All water is burned, except for one side of the burner or furnace where the fuels are burned Due to heat losses are less and boiler efficiency becomes higher. • It is always recommended to use softened water. • Heating surfaces are small and the amount of steam they produce is approximately 250 tons. The heating surface is in contact with the gas flowing between the furnace and the flue They are surface. (Available up to 30 t / h and 30 bar.) Vapor retention times are too long; and the intermediate load times are shorter. (Steam holding time: water to boiler the time until the steam is obtained at the operating pressure after it has been removed. • Pressure and temperature of the steam they produce is low. This pressure is maximum 30 bar can be produced up to pressure.

  • Strainer Connection Type

     

    Dampers on the steam lines should be connected horizontally or even horizontally.

    Dampers on the steam lines should be connected horizontally or even horizontally.

  • Why Steam Boilers Use and Uses

     

    Reasons for Using Steam
    • An ideal heat carrier
    
    • Can carry more heat with small diameter pipes
    
    • Environmentally friendly (ie clean)
    
    • Energy savings can be achieved with recovery
    
    • Transport of the fluid takes place with its own part.
    
    No pump required. hence the cost is low.
    
    • It is possible to perform temperature control very precisely.
    
    • Reduces the risk of corrosion in steam installations.
    
    • Heat loss is low so it is an ideal heat carrier. Transmitting with small diameter pipes
    
    Due to heat losses are less than other systems. Thermodynamic properties are good.
    
    • Investment expense is small, small diameter pipe is used, insulation is done less, cheap assembly.
    
    • Steam is safe so no flammability. It is a sterile fluid.
    
    • Steam is environmentally friendly. It is pure substance.
    
    The disadvantage is; Protection should be done because it is high energy and pressure.
    
    Uses of Steam
    • Petrochemicals
    
    • Electricity generation in thermal power plants (steam turbines)
    
    • In the pharmaceutical and food industry for sterilization purposes
    
    • Construction materials industry
    
    • Steam heating systems (heating systems)
    
    • Refineries
    
    • Chemical processes
    
    • Food industry
    
    • Sterilization (packaging and food)
    
    • In the fertilizer industry
    
    • Rubber products and manufacturing
    
    • Construction materials industry
    
    • In the paper industry
    
    • Wood processing and shaping
    
    It is used in many places.
  • What is CE Certificate?
    The CE marking is a health and safety sign applied in the framework of the Yaklaşım New Approach oluştur that the European Union established in 1985 in order to ensure free circulation of goods. It is intended to use a uniform EU sign indicating compliance with the EU directives instead of the various conformity marks used throughout the EU.
     The CE Mark is a sign of conformity with the New Approach Directives of the European Union, indicating that the product on which it is attached is healthy and safe for human, animal and environment. A product covered by one or more of the New Approach Directives, which currently has a total of 25, is not allowed to enter the EU market without carrying the CE Mark. It is of great importance that the manufacturers produce according to the harmonized standards related to the directives to prove compliance with the New Approach Directives. Compliance with standards
     notwithstanding, in case of production in accordance with the standards, assuming that the production is in accordance with the directives also encourages the manufacturer to comply with the standards.
     
     CE mark; It is not a quality symbol, it is a sign that the product it is attached to meets all the requirements of the relevant regulation and is created to ensure the free movement of goods between the member states of the European Union.
    The "CE" conformity mark consists of the initials "CE" with the following figure:
     
    If the dır CE ık conformity mark is reduced or enlarged, the ratios given in the above drawing must be adhered to.
     
    TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE Notified Body Number: 1783.
     
    Following the "CE" conformity mark, the identification number of the notified body carrying out the procedures shall take place. For example for TSE; "CE 1783".
     
     
     
     
    WHICH PRODUCTS SHOULD BE TRANSPORTED BY CE MARK?
    Directives included in the following table require CE marking,
    All new products produced in the Member States or in third countries,
    Used or second-hand products imported from third countries,
    Products that are subject to amendments, such as new products,
    CE marking is required.
     
    'CE' MARK RELEASE TRANSACTIONS
     
    The directives / directives of the product are determined.
    Harmonized standards, if any, are identified.
    A combination of modules or modules is selected.
    Determined if the notified body is required.
    Following the conformity assessment, a declaration of conformity and, if necessary, other documents are prepared. The technical file is arranged and maintained. A lar CE diğer mark is attached to the product and / or the package and the accompanying document and placed on the market.
     
     
     
    Unauthorized Use of the CE Mark
    In case of detection of non-compliance with regulations state that the product manufacturer or his authorized representative in Turkey, ensuring the product is in accordance with the provisions concerning the CE conformity mark and made it a violation is obliged to terminate. In the event of nonconformity, the Ministry shall take all measures for the restriction, prohibition or withdrawal of the supply of the product in question and the prohibition of the use of the elevator.
     
     
     
    NEW APPROACH AND MODULAR SYSTEM
    In the "New Approach", the directives do not contain too many technical details and the general rules of the goods produced according to the goods groups are determined. In addition, it is ensured that the goods in accordance with the hazırlanmış Basic Requirements, are in free circulation. The determinants are prepared according to the intended use of the products, not the products. Thus, the products which have similar functions are grouped together and with a single directive, "minimum safety" conditions are provided for more than one product.
    Since 1990, the CE marking system has a modular approach. there is an approach.
     
    Systems of Evaluation and Verification of Invariance of Performance;
    SYSTEM 1+ / 1
    A Certificate of Performance Invariance must be obtained from a notified body that carries out the Product Certification.
     
    The performance specification of the basic characteristics of the building material is based on the following items by the manufacturer.
     
    (a) Manufacturer's duties:
    Factory Production Control (FPC)
    Further testing of samples taken from the factory according to the prescribed test plan
     
    (b) Approved Product Certification Body duties:
    Determining the type of material based on the type test of the material (including sampling), type calculations, tabulated values ​​or explanatory documents
    Initial inspection of factory production control and production facility
    Continuous monitoring, measurement and evaluation of factory production control

    Random inspection of samples prior to placing on the market (for 1+ only)ıp üzerine iliştirildiği ürünün ilgili yönetmeliğin tüm gereklerini karşıladığı anlamına gelen ve Avrupa Birliği üyesi ülkeler arasında malların serbest dolaşımını sağlamak amacıyla ortaya çıkan bir işarettir.

    "CE" uygunluk işareti aşağıdaki şekle sahip olan " CE " baş harflerinden oluşur:

    Eğer "CE" uygunluk işareti küçültülür veya büyültülür ise, yukarıdaki çizimde verilen oranlara sadık kalınmalıdır.

    TÜRK STANDARDLARI ENSTİTÜSÜ Onaylanmış Kuruluş Numarası: 1783'dir.

    "CE" uygunluk işaretini müteakip, işlemleri yapan onaylanmış kuruluşun kimlik numarası yer almalıdır. Örneğin TSE için; "CE 1783" şeklindedir.

     


    HANGİ ÜRÜNLER CE İŞARETİ TAŞIMALIDIR?

    • Aşağıdaki tabloda verilen CE işareti gerektiren direktifler arasında bulunan, 
    • Üye ülkelerde veya üçüncü ülkelerde üretilmiş tüm yeni ürünlerin, 
    • Üçüncü ülkelerden ithal edilen kullanılmış veya ikinci el ürünlerin, 
    • Direktiflerin hükümlerine yeni ürünmüş gibi tabi olan, önemli ölçüde değişikliğe uğratılmış ürünlerin, 

    CE işareti taşıması gerekmektedir.

    ' CE '' İŞARETİ İLİŞTİRME İŞLEMLERİ 


    Ürün ile ilgili direktif / direktifleri belirlenir. 
    Varsa uyumlaştırılmış standartlar tespit edilir.
    Modül veya modüller kombinasyonu seçilir. 
    Onaylanmış kuruluş gerekip gerekmediğini belirlenir. 
    Uygunluk değerlendirmesine müteakiben, uygunluk beyanı ve gerekiyorsa diğer dokümanlar hazırlanır.Teknik dosya düzenlenir ve muhafaza edilir .Ürünün üzerine ve / veya ambalajına ve beraberindeki belgeye '' CE '' işareti iliştirilir ve piyasaya arz edilir.

     

    CE İŞARETİNİN USULSÜZ KULLANIMI 
    Yönetmeliklere uygun olmayan durumun tespit edilmesi halinde, ürünün imalatçısı veya Türkiye'de yerleşik  yetkili temsilcisi, ürünün CE uygunluk işaretiyle ilgili hükümlere uygun olmasını sağlamakla ve yapılan bu ihlali  sona erdirmekle yükümlüdür. Uygunsuzluğun devam etmesi halinde, Bakanlık kanunlarla kendisine verilen  yetkiler çerçevesinde, söz konusu ürünün piyasaya arzının kısıtlanmasına veya yasaklanmasına veya piyasadan çekilmesine ve asansörün kullanımının yasaklanmasına ilişkin tüm önlemleri alır.

     

    YENİ YAKLAŞIM VE MODÜLER SİSTEM

    "Yeni Yaklaşım"da direktifler çok fazla teknik detay içermemekte, üretilen malların, mal gruplarına göre uyması gereken genel kuralları belirlenmektedir. Ayrıca, "Temel Gerekler"e uygun malların serbest dolaşım içinde  olması sağlanmaktadır.Direktifler ürünlere göre değil, ürünlerin kullanım amaçlarına göre hazırlanmıştır. Böylece benzer işlevleri gören  ürünler, gruplar halinde toplanmış ve tek bir direktif ile birden fazla ürün için "asgari güvenlik" koşulları sağlanmıştır. 
    1990 yılından bu yana CE işaretlemesi sisteminde "modüler" bir anlayış uygulanmaktadır.Modüler anlayışın temel amacı, uygunluk değerlendirme yöntemlerini, ürünlerin özelliklerini ve taşıdıkları risk  oranlarını dikkate alarak belirlemektir.Yapı Malzemeleri Yönetmeliğinde, Modüler Yaklaşımın yerine, Performansın Değişmezliğinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Doğrulanması Sistemi şeklinde  isimlendirilen bir yaklaşım söz konusudur.

    Performansın Değişmezliğinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Doğrulanması Sistemleri;

    SİSTEM 1+ / 1

    Ürün Belgelendirmesi yapan Onaylanmış bir kuruluştan Performans Değişmezlik Belgesi alınması gerekir.

    Yapı malzemesine ilişkin temel karakteristiklerin performans beyanı imalâtçı tarafından aşağıdaki öğelere dayandırılır.

    (a)    Üreticinin görevleri :
    Fabrika Üretim Kontrolü (FPC) 
    Öngörülen deney planına göre fabrikadan alınan numunelerin ileri testleri

    (b)   Onaylanmış Ürün Belgelendirme Kuruluşu  görevleri :
    Malzemenin tip testine (numune alma dâhil), tip hesaplamalara, tablolanmış değerlere veya açıklayıcı dokümanlara dayanarak malzeme tipinin tespiti
    Fabrika üretim kontrolünün ve üretim tesisinin başlangıç denetimi
    Fabrika üretim kontrolünün sürekli gözetimi, ölçümü ve değerlendirilmesi
    Malzemelerin piyasaya arzından önce numunelerinin rastgele denetlenmesi (sadece 1+ için)

    SİSTEM 2+

    Fabrika Üretim kontörlü Belgelendirmesi yapan Onaylanmış bir kuruluştan Fabrika Üretim Kontrolü Uygunluk Belgesi alınması gerekir.

    Yapı malzemesine ilişkin temel karakteristiklerin performans beyanı imalâtçı tarafından aşağıdaki öğelere dayandırılır.

    (a)    Üreticinin görevleri :
    Fabrika Üretim Kontrolü (FPC)
    Öngörülen deney planına göre fabrikadan alınan numunelerin testleri
    Malzemenin tip testine (numune alma dâhil), tip hesaplamalara, tablo halinde verilen değerlere veya açıklayıcı belgelere dayanarak malzeme tipinin tespiti

    (b)   Onaylanmış Fabrika Üretim Kontrolü Belgelendirme Kuruluşu  görevleri :
    Fabrika üretim kontrolünün ve üretim tesisinin başlangıç denetimi
    Fabrika üretim kontrolünün sürekli gözetimi, ölçümü ve değerlendirilmesi

    SİSTEM 3

    Yapı malzemesine ilişkin temel karakteristiklerin performans beyanı imalâtçı tarafından aşağıdaki öğelere dayandırılır.

    (a)    Üreticinin görevleri : Fabrika Üretim Kontrolü (FPC)

    (b)   Onaylanmış Laboratuvarın  görevleri : Malzemenin tip testine (numune alma dâhil), tip hesaplamalara, tablo halinde verilen değerlere veya açıklayıcı belgelere dayanarak malzeme tipinin tespiti

    SİSTEM 4

    Yapı malzemesine ilişkin temel karakteristiklerin performans beyanı imalâtçı tarafından aşağıdaki öğelere dayandırılır.

    (a)    Üreticinin görevleri :
    Fabrika Üretim Kontrolü (FPC)
    Malzemenin tip testine (numune alma dâhil), tip hesaplamalara, tablo halinde verilen değerlere veya açıklayıcı belgelere dayanarak malzeme tipinin tespiti

    (b)   Onaylanmış Kuruluşun  görevleri :  Yoktur.

    UYGUNLUK DEĞERLENDİRME MODÜLLERİ 
    1. Modül A : İç Üretim Kontrolü 
    2. Modül B : Tip İncelemesi 3. Modül C : Tipe Uygunluk Beyanı 
    4. Modül D : Üretim Kalite Güvencesi
    5. Modül E : Ürün Kalite Güvencesi 
    6. Modül F : Ürün Doğrulaması 
    7. Modül G : Birim Doğrulaması 
    8. Modül H : Tam Kalite Güvencesi

    Modül A: Üretimin  İç Kontrolü Hem tasarım hem üretim safhalarını içeren bu modülde üretici, ürünün ilgili
    direktiflere uygunluğunu beyan eder, tasarım, üretim ve kullanımını açıklayan teknik dokümanları hazırlar.
    Onaylanmış kuruluşa ihtiyaç yoktur. 

    Modül B: AT Tip  İncelemesi Yalnızca tasarım aşamasını kapsayan bu modül genellikle uygunluk beyanı ile birlikte kullanılır. CE işareti  şartı aranmayan bu modül çerçevesinde onaylanmış kurum, ürün örneğini ilgili direktif doğrultusunda test eder.

    Modül C: Tipe Uygunluk Beyanı Üretim aşamasına yönelik olan bu modül tek başına yeterli değildir ve AT Tip İncelemesi modülünden (Modül B) sonraki bir aşamayı temsil eder. Ürünün ilgili direktif gereklerine uyduğunu kanıtlamak için kullanılan bu modül sonucunda üretici ürününe CE işareti iliştirir ve uygunluk beyanında bulunur. 

    Modül D: Üretim Kalite Güvencesi Üretim aşamasını kapsar ve Modül B'yi takip eder. Onaylanmış bir kurum tarafından test edilme ve onaylanma sürecini içerir.  İzlediği süreç ISO 9000'nin üretim, tesis ve satış sonrası hizmet kapsamı (eski ISO 9002) ile benzerlik gösterir. Üretim sürecine yönelik bir kalite güvence sistemi kurulmasını öngörür. Nihai ürün denetimi ve testleri imalatçı tarafından gerçekleştirilir. 

    Modül E: Ürün Kalite Güvencesi Üretim aşamasını kapsar ve Modül B'yi takip eder. Onaylanmış bir kurum tarafından test edilme ve onaylanma aşamasını içerir. İzlediği süreç ISO 9000'nin son kontrol ve testler ' alım + ambalaj + satış sonrası hizmet [üretimi içermez] kapsamı ile benzerlik gösterir (eski ISO 9003). Üretim sürecine
    yönelik bir kalite güvence sistemi kurulmasını öngörür. Nihai ürün denetimi ve testleri imalatçı tarafından gerçekleştirilir.

    Modül F: Ürün Doğrulaması Sadece üretim aşamasına yönelik olan bu modül genellikle Modül B ile birlikte kullanılır. Onaylanmış bir kurumun, ürünün teknik dokümanlara veya tip incelemesindeki tanımlara uygunluğunu denetlediği modül çerçevesinde yazılı uygunluk belgesi ile birlikte ürüne CE işareti iliştirilir. 

    Modül G: Birim Doğrulaması Hem tasarım hem üretim safhalarını kapsayan bu modül çerçevesinde, onaylanmış kurumun, ürünün ilgili direktiflere uyduğunu bildirmesi ve yapılan testler neticesinde ürünün CE işareti taşıması gerekir. 

    Modül H: Tam Kalite Güvencesi Hem tasarım hem üretim safhalarıyla ilgili olan bu modülün uygulanması için onaylanmış bir kurum tarafından kalite yönetim sisteminin [ISO 9000'nin tasarım + geliştirme + üretim + tesis + satış sonrası hizmet kapsamını (TS EN ISO 9001)] varlığı denetlenir. Tasarımın uyumlaştırılmış standardlara tam olarak uyumlu olmadığı durumlarda ; tasarımın yönetmeliğin hükümlerine uyup uymadığı incelenir.


    CE İŞARETİ VE TSE BELGESİ 
    CE  İşareti üzerine iliştirildiği ürünün kullanıldığı çevre açısından güvenli olduğunu gösteren, Avrupa Birliği Yeni Yaklaşım Direktiflerine uygunluk işaretidir. Bir ürün birden fazla Yeni Yaklaşım Direktifine girebilmekte olup, gerekli şartlar yerine getirilerek ürün üzerine iliştirilen CE İşareti o ürünün bu direktiflerin tümüne uygun
    olduğunu göstermektedir. Direktiflere uygunluk, direktiflerde belirtilen ilgili uygunluk değerlendirme prosedürlerini takip ederek direktiflerin temel gereklerini karşılamak anlamına gelmektedir. Bu temel gerekler ürün güvenliğine yönelik şartları öngörmektedir. Bununla birlikte temel gerekler ürünün performans özellikleri ve kalitesine yönelik şartları direkt olarak belirtmemektedir. Dolayısıyla CE İşareti ürünlerin güvenliğine yönelik olup esas olarak Avrupa Birliği içerisinde serbest dolaşımı amaçlamaktadır.Oysa TSE Ürün Belgelendirmesi direktiflerde atıfta bulunulan Standardlarda öngörülen güvenlik şartlarının yanı sıra performans ve kalite kriterlerini, üretim yerinin yeterliliği ile birlikte göz önünde bulundurularak gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu nedenle TSE Belgeli bir ürün güvenli olmanın yanı sıra performans ve kalite açısından da tüketiciye güvence vermektedir. Bu nedenle ürün belgelendirmesinin CE işaretine bir alternatif olarak değerlendirilmemesi gerekir. Bunun en bariz göstergesi, Avrupa Birliği ülkelerinin tümünde CE işareti dışında kalan ürün belgelendirme faaliyetlerinin sürekli artarak devam ediyor olmasıdır. Enstitümüzün 1964 yılında başlattığı ve günümüze kadar kesintisiz devam ettirdiği ürün belgelendirme hizmetleri, gerek sanayicimiz gerekse tüketicilerimiz açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır.


    CE İŞARETİNİN KALİTE YÖNETİM İSTEMLERİYLE İLİŞKİSİ NEDİR?

    CE işaretinin Kalite Yönetim Sistemleriyle (TS EN ISO 9001) doğrudan bir ilişkisi yoktur. CE işareti herhangi bir ürünün Avrupa Birliği Yeni Yaklaşım Direktiflerine ve ilgili harmonize Avrupa Standartlarına uygun olarak tasarlanıp, üretildiğini simgeler. Modüler sistemde bazı ürün grupları için Kalite Yönetim Sistemlerinin  şart olduğu görülmektedir.

  • Hot Oil Boiler Selling Companies

     

    THERMAL OIL HEATING SYSTEMS Boiling temperatures are between 260 oC and 390 oC. High pressure steam or hot water was used in the processes such as textile, wood, automotive and chemical industries where high operating temperatures such as industrial heating, drying and cooking were needed. Now, for the same purpose up to 300 oC temperatures, hot oil heating systems are preferred. The most important reason for choosing hot oil in high temperature applications is the process need; high temperature equivalent to high steam pressure. For this reason, hot oil boilers are used to eliminate the risk of working at high vapor pressure. The maximum pressure in the system is 1 bar maximum, the system is more secure because it is not high pressure, there is no corrosion effect. The overall cost of the system is generally less than that of the steam or hot water system. The plant is installed locally and only for a high temperature process. The main advantages of such fluids in relation to water and steam are: 1. It is possible to install lı non-pressurized yüksek plants up to 350 ° C due to their high boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure. 2. Since there is no tendency for corrosion and grinding, the heat carrier does not need a pre-treatment plant. 3. There is no damage caused by freezing during the solidification. Features Required from Hot Oil: 1. Boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure should be high. 2. The temperature of the solidification (freezing) should be low. 3. Must have good thermal stability. 4. It should have low viscosity at all temperatures (even at the time of the fault). 5. Heat transfer properties should be good. 6. When used as steam, the latent heat of evaporation should be high. 7. The materials used for the materials should have a low corrosion tendency.

    THERMAL OIL HEATING SYSTEMS Boiling temperatures are between 260 oC and 390 oC. High pressure steam or hot water was used in the processes such as textile, wood, automotive and chemical industries where high operating temperatures such as industrial heating, drying and cooking were needed. Now, for the same purpose up to 300 oC temperatures, hot oil heating systems are preferred. The most important reason for choosing hot oil in high temperature applications is the process need; high temperature equivalent to high steam pressure. For this reason, hot oil boilers are used to eliminate the risk of working at high vapor pressure. The maximum pressure in the system is 1 bar maximum, the system is more secure because it is not high pressure, there is no corrosion effect. The overall cost of the system is generally less than that of the steam or hot water system. The plant is installed locally and only for a high temperature process. The main advantages of such fluids in relation to water and steam are: 1. It is possible to install lı non-pressurized yüksek plants up to 350 ° C due to their high boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure. 2. Since there is no tendency for corrosion and grinding, the heat carrier does not need a pre-treatment plant. 3. There is no damage caused by freezing during the solidification. Features Required from Hot Oil: 1. Boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure should be high. 2. The temperature of the solidification (freezing) should be low. 3. Must have good thermal stability. 4. It should have low viscosity at all temperatures (even at the time of the fault). 5. Heat transfer properties should be good. 6. When used as steam, the latent heat of evaporation should be high. 7. The materials used for the materials should have a low corrosion tendency.

  • What is the Pressure of a Coach Impact

     

    A pressure of 10 times the vapor pressure available at the location it makes itself feel as a very violent sound and knock.

    A pressure of 10 times the vapor pressure available at the location it makes itself feel as a very violent sound and knock.

  • Flue Gas Heat Level

    A 20 ° C drop from the flue gas means that the boiler is 1% more efficient.

  • Steam and Water Energy Difference

     

    Steam carries 5 times more energy than Water.

    Steam carries 5 times more energy than Water.

  • What is Energy?
    It is called the power that is found in an object and is used to create a work. Life in the world has been caused by the energy in the universe.
     
    Most of this energy comes from the sun. Solar energy is accumulated in coal, on board, in gasoline. The sun allows the waters on the earth to evaporate and rain, thus creating the streams that are an energy source. Humanity has progressed in parallel with the discovery of new energy sources.
     
    Energy is one of two important elements of physics, the first being mass. Physics scholars claim that energy mass has two separate states of the same idea. Many forms of energy can be obtained by chemical changes. One of the most important energy sources is found in the atomic nucleus. The energy of a system is the maximum work that a system can do. Work is described as an object in physics, manipulation by a force, displacement.
     
    If W (F.) is indicated by the force (F) and strength of the object (x), W = F.x. The velocity of the applied objects changes. Since all the moving objects have speed, they can also be extracted from the energy described above. In other words, the objects having the speed have a force. They can do business with this force.
     
    It is because of the energy that the two bottles, which collide rapidly, break each other. This energy is called "kinetic energy." Kinetic energy is equal to half of the mass of the body and the velocity of its velocity (E = 1/2 mv2). If an object standing in a frictionless environment acts under the influence of a force (F) and gains one (x) speed at the end (v), the work done by the force is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the object (F.x = 1/2 mv2). If force affects the moving object, then the work on that object is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of that object.
     
    energy
     
    Potential energy: They are capable of doing work due to their condition. The gravitational potential energy is the energy that the objects under the gravitational force of the earth have at a certain height from the ground. The work they can do is given by multiplying the masses, the acceleration of gravity and the height they are in. In potential energy = m.g.h, g denotes gravitational acceleration and its value is constant. Because flexible bodies are capable of compressing and elongating by force application, they can have potential energy. That is, they can store the work done on them as a potential energy because of a force.
     
    The potential energy accumulated by a spring is given by a constant number indicating its elasticity and by half of the product of the square of the amount of elongation and compression. In the formula E = 1/2 k.x2 the constant k is called the spring constant and indicates the degree of rigidity of the spring. Kinetic energy and potential energy are called mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is conservative. There may be changes between them. As a high stone falls, its potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy.
     
    When a moving object compresses a spring, the kinetic energy becomes the patential energy that the spring accumulates. The potential energy of a falling body of water turns into kinetic energy. This kinetic energy can turn a turbine. If the rotating shaft of this turbine rotates the stirrer in a water container, the temperature in the vessel appears to rise. The heat gained by the water is the kinetic energy of the water that rotates the turbine.
     
    So heat is also an energy. Heated objects can do work. When the bottom of a container filled with gas is heated, it is seen that the lid of the container is raised. Thus, the heat energy has turned into potential energy. The energy of an object at temperature T is given by the formula 1/2 K.T2. K is the Boltzmann constant. In the theory of relativity, it has been shown that each substance corresponds to an energy. The mass of an object multiplied by the square of the speed of light gives the energy equivalent of that substance (E = M.C2).
     
    Modern physics revealed that the transfer of energy was in very small quantities (energy packages). These small amounts (energy packets) are called quanta. This state of energy is called the quantum. In the broadest sense, energy conservation means that the amount of energy does not change even if the name changes. For example, the mass disappears, but the energy that the mass corresponds to returns to the heat energy.
     
    Energy laws
    The electromagnetic waves emitted by the sun carry energy. Therefore, the sun is an important source of energy. The amount of solar energy in industry is 4x10 33 erg. In the sun, the hydrogen atoms, which have lost their electrons due to high temperatures, enter nuclear reactions with each other and become the helium nucleus and the mass loss in the reaction is revealed in the form of energy.
     
  • Points to be Considered in Hot Oil Installation
    Points to be Considered in Hot Oil Installation
    1.Thermal Oil Expansion Tank: It should be at least 30% of total thermal oil volume in the installation (including boiler). The diameter of the expansion tank should be as small as possible (in order for the surface to be in contact with the atmosphere to be small) and the tank should be placed in a vertical cylindrical manner.
    2. Oil Tank: It should be at least 1.5 times the volume of all thermal oil in the installation.
    3.Thermal Oil Circulating Pumps: Specially designed for high temperatures, preferably air cooled, cast steel or ductile iron.
    4.Thermal Oil Filling Pumps: Gear pumps are designed according to the viscosity of thermal oil at room temperature.
    5. Valves, Check Valves, 3-Way Valves: It should be resistant to operating temperature of thermal oil, copper or copper alloys should not be used in internal parts. The valves must be PN16 ductile cast iron or PN25 / 40 cast steel.
    6.Filter: It holds the solids which are carried with oil in the installation. They should be cleaned from time to time. Choosing the filter surfaces as large as possible would be appropriate to reduce the frequency of cleaning. A pressure gauge must be connected to the filter inlet and outlet in order to be able to see and interfere with the resistance of the filter.
    7.Thermal Oil Level Indicator: The temperature of the thermal oil in the expansion tank and characteristics should be appropriate.
    8.Pipe Installation and Fittings: All pipe fittings must be steel. Unalloyed steels below 300 C are permitted. In the piping, carbonaceous (eg ASTM A-53 and ASTM A-106) or St. 35.8 Seamless steel pull pipe can be used. Cast iron is never used in hot oil installations. (Due to the risk of breakage, cracking, oil leakage) The piping should be properly inclined and an air vent and valve should be placed in places where air is likely to accumulate. The pipes that the oil is distilled should be insulated with rock wool.
    9.Informations: For safety and control, the following instruments must be present in the hot oil system.
    a. Burner control thermostat
    b.Maximum temperature thermostat
    c.Different presostad or flow switch stops the burner when the oil circulation is decelerated or the oil circulation pump is deactivated.
    d.Mainification tank minimum oil level lock disables the burner by alarming when the oil level falls below a certain level.
    eBaca thermostat: For any reason when the oil circulation stops: the flue gas temperature will rise, thus disabling the burner.
    10. Thermal Oil to be used in the system: Mineral oils; mineral oils which do not lose their property at high temperatures, do not have corrosive properties and do not deteriorate their thermal stability (heat transfer properties) should be preferred.
    11. Regeneration Tank: It is the only place where the thermal oil in the system comes into contact with air. The temperature of the oil in the tank must not exceed 60 C in order to avoid oxidation. The facility must be made to guarantee this. In order to reduce the air-contacting surface of the oil in the tank; the expansion tank should be installed in a cylindrical tank shape and mounted to a point higher than the top of the installation, so as not to cause any problems with the circulation pump. Expansion tank should not be isolated. (It can only be enclosed in a closed area where there is a risk of frost.) The connection of the installation with the expansion tank is provided before the suction pump circulation and with a 1 1/2 "- 2" diameter non-insulated pipe.
    12.Therm Oil Storage Reserve Tank: Put the reservoir tank at a depth where all the oil in the installation will be drained by the natural flow. If possible, place a level indicator or petrometer on it. Start filling the oil from the lowest point with a hand pump or gear pump. In the system where there is a possibility of air purging, place an air discharge system so that they are open during the oil filling process.
    13.Depending: Due to the high temperatures, the expansion of the pipes in the hot oil installation should be considered. These elongations are even more evident in the connection of the installation elements such as the boiler and the valve. The elasticity of small diameter pipes can sometimes compensate for these elongations. However, if there are too many valves on the large diameter pipes and feature pipeline, then the compensator should be used at certain intervals and the pipes should be fixed in appropriate places.
    14.Air Evacuation System: Measures should be taken to evacuate the collected vapor and gas at the highest points of the system.
    15.Blowing: A suitable place must be installed in a suitable place to drain all oil and other substances in the installation.
    16.Influent Oil Boiler Rooms: Separate from the main building, independent and should be made to the floor. It must have an emergency exit door (made of fire-resistant material) outside the entrance door.
  • Steam Boiler Types
    Flame Smoke Pipe Boilers:
     
    Hot flame and smoke gases resulting from combustion in flame smoke tube boilers
     
    The temperature of the water around the pipes is increased and the steam is obtained by boiling. In general, the use of such boilers is not common when the operating values ​​of 30 t / h and 30 bar are exceeded. The following are briefly mentioned below from the three types of three-pass (scotch type) and three-pass semi-cylindrical boilers and two-pass radiation type boilers, which are widely used in the market.
     
    Three-Pass Scotch Type Steam Boilers:
     
    Boilers have been the most widely used and preferred boilers in the world for years with their operational efficiency and long durability. Because of the fact that the flame smoke gases have three passes inside the boiler, the temperature of the flue exit gases and the sufficient size of the heating surface have brought the efficiency of these boilers to the fore. In addition, the boiler can be repaired by the structure of the boiler has. In this way, the aging and abrasions that will occur during the years are eliminated and the boiler can continue working. It is possible to use solid - liquid and gas fuel in this type of boiler.
     
    Two-Pass Counter Pressure Steam Boilers:
     
    Low cost and small size boilers. Heating surfaces are lower and sufficient
     
    Chimney outlet temperatures were increased in order to reach capacity. They are widely used in the market because of their low cost. Their use decreases in parallel with the developments in the evaluation of energy, environment and economic factors.
     
    Half Cylindrical Type Steam Boilers:
     
    Especially in solid fuel plants and operating pressure up to 5 bar
     
    suitable boiler type, half cylindrical boilers. It provides smooth and efficient combustion in the solid fuel with its large burner and grill surface. Also convert to liquid or gas fuel
     
    It is possible.
     
    Hybrid Type Pre-Cooked Steam Boilers
     
    Boiler type which is ideal for solid fuel systems in high pressure and steam quantities. Boilers consisting of water pipe pre-burner and flame smoke pipe rear boiler part can be increased to 20 t / h and 20 bar with solid fuel.
     
    Some Important Definitions About Steam Boilers:
     
    1- Heating Surface: Boiler or any heat exchanger is one of the basic criteria for the dimensioning of the heating surface. It is of great benefit for the customer to know the concept of heating surface, especially when receiving or selecting a boiler. The heating surface is mainly used to indicate the size and capacity of the boiler. The heating surface means the total area of ​​the surfaces in which the hot flame and smoke gases in the boiler come into contact with the water to be heated. The larger the heating surface of a boiler, the greater the boiler capacity. The heating surface in the boiler can generally be found by collecting the surface area of ​​the flame smoke pipes, the areas where the ash and fire are in contact with the hot gases.
     
     
     
    2- Steam Quality: In order to measure the amount of water in saturated steam
     
    this definition corresponds to a value between 0 and 1 as the expression of the formula.
     
    Quality = Saturated Steam Amount (kg) / [Saturated Steam + Water amount] (kg). It is desirable to have this value close to 1, especially in processes where dry steam is desired.
     
    3- F & A 100 C and Real Steam Amount: While defining the amount of steam taken from the boiler, the capacity of producing 1 bar of saturated steam at 100 ° C and F & A 100 C is included in most catalog and label values. The actual amount of steam gives the amount of steam that can actually be obtained at the desired pressure value.
     
    For example, a boiler that produces 5000 kg / h of real steam at 10.5 bar can produce 5870 kg / h of steam at F & A 100 C. This definition is used to create an equivalent unit in industry.
     
    4 - Some tips on boilers: Here are some tips on 3-pass (scotch type) boilers with flame smoke pipe, which are widely used in industry.
  • Lark How Much Steam Pulls

     

    Lark draws steam at a maximum capacity of 1200kg / h to 1400 kg / h in normal standards For more detailed inquiries please send an e-mail to our e-mail address It will be answered within one day at the latest. (if you leave your contact number, we inform you by calling)

    Lark draws steam at a maximum capacity of 1200kg / h to 1400 kg / h in normal standards For more detailed inquiries please send an e-mail to our e-mail address It will be answered within one day at the latest. (if you leave your contact number, we inform you by calling)

  • Concrete Curing Steam Needs How Much?
    Concrete Curing Steam Needs How Much?
     
    The concrete curing capacity requirement, which is generally difficult to calculate and the amount of capacity, needs 20kg / h steam to cure the concrete at 4-6 bar operating pressure and 1m3beton / hour.
     
     
     
     
     
    -----------------------
     
     
     
    add this to new sections
     
    What is energy?
    It is called the power that is found in an object and is used to create a work. Life in the world has been caused by the energy in the universe.
     
    Most of this energy comes from the sun. Solar energy is accumulated in coal, on board, in gasoline. The sun allows the waters on the earth to evaporate and rain, thus creating the streams that are an energy source. Humanity has progressed in parallel with the discovery of new energy sources.
     
    Energy is one of two important elements of physics, the first being mass. Physics scholars claim that energy mass has two separate states of the same idea. Many forms of energy can be obtained by chemical changes. One of the most important energy sources is found in the atomic nucleus. The energy of a system is the maximum work that a system can do. Work is described as an object in physics, manipulation by a force, displacement.
     
    If W (F.) is indicated by the force (F) and strength of the object (x), W = F.x. The velocity of the applied objects changes. Since all the moving objects have speed, they can also be extracted from the energy described above. In other words, the objects having the speed have a force. They can do business with this force.
     
    It is because of the energy that the two bottles, which collide rapidly, break each other. This energy is called "kinetic energy." Kinetic energy is equal to half of the mass of the body and the velocity of its velocity (E = 1/2 mv2). If an object standing in a frictionless environment acts under the influence of a force (F) and gains one (x) speed at the end (v), the work done by the force is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the object (F.x = 1/2 mv2). If force affects the moving object, then the work on that object is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of that object.
     
    energy
     
    Potential energy: They are capable of doing work due to their condition. The gravitational potential energy is the energy that the objects under the gravitational force of the earth have at a certain height from the ground. The work they can do is given by multiplying the masses, the acceleration of gravity and the height they are in. In potential energy = m.g.h, g denotes gravitational acceleration and its value is constant. Because flexible bodies are capable of compressing and elongating by force application, they can have potential energy. That is, they can store the work done on them as a potential energy because of a force.
     
    The potential energy accumulated by a spring is given by a constant number indicating its elasticity and by half of the product of the square of the amount of elongation and compression. In the formula E = 1/2 k.x2 the constant k is called the spring constant and indicates the degree of rigidity of the spring. Kinetic energy and potential energy are called mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is conservative. There may be changes between them. As a high stone falls, its potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy.
     
    When a moving object compresses a spring, the kinetic energy becomes the patential energy that the spring accumulates. The potential energy of a falling body of water turns into kinetic energy. This kinetic energy can turn a turbine. If the rotating shaft of this turbine rotates the stirrer in a water container, the temperature in the vessel appears to rise. The heat gained by the water is the kinetic energy of the water that rotates the turbine.
     
    So heat is also an energy. Heated objects can do work. When the bottom of a container filled with gas is heated, it is seen that the lid of the container is raised. Thus, the heat energy has turned into potential energy. The energy of an object at temperature T is given by the formula 1/2 K.T2. K is the Boltzmann constant. In the theory of relativity, it has been shown that each substance corresponds to an energy. The mass of an object multiplied by the square of the speed of light gives the energy equivalent of that substance (E = M.C2).
     
    Modern physics revealed that the transfer of energy was in very small quantities (energy packages). These small amounts (energy packets) are called quanta. This state of energy is called the quantum. In the broadest sense, energy conservation means that the amount of energy does not change even if the name changes. For example, the mass disappears, but the energy that the mass corresponds to returns to the heat energy.
  • The Importance of Steam Boilers in the World - History
    The steam engine is an external combustion engine that converts the heat energy in the steam into mechanical energy. Steam machines, locomotives, steam ships, pumps, steam tractors and industrial circuits.
     
    A steam engine needs a boiler to boil water to produce steam under pressure. Any heat source can be used, but fires from firing wood, coal or petroleum-derived fuels are generally used.
     
    As the working principle, the water that receives the heat energy expands and evaporates into a chamber.
     

     

    İçindekiler

    İlk örnek

     Buhar gücünün ilk faydalı uygulaması
     Buhar makineleri◦3.1 Savery makinesi
     Newcomen makinesi
     Watt makinesi
     Buhar türbinleri

     Buhar makinesinin verimi
     Buharlı ulaşım araçları  Buharlı gemiler
     Buharlı Lokomotifler
     Buharlı otomobil

     Buhar makinesi tipleri
     Bağlantılar
     Kaynaklar

     

    İlk örnek

     
    İskenderiyeli Heron’un yaptığı ilk örnek türbin

    Bilinen ilk buhar makinesi diyebileceğimiz örnek Mısırlı mühendis Heron'nun birinci yüzyılda 50 yıllarına doğru mısır iskenderiye'de uçları birbirlerine göre zıt yönleri gösteren iki eğik tüpün yerleştirildiği oyuk bir küreden yaptığı türbin’dir. Kürede su kaynatıldığında buhar borulardan dışarı çıkmakta günümüzde etki tepki kanunu dediğimiz şeyin sonucunda kürenin dönmesine yol açmakta idi. Hero buharlı bir türbin ya da motor icat etmesine rağmen toplumda bir etki yaratmadığından bunu motor aygıtının icadı olarak görülmemektedir

    Buhar gücünün ilk faydalı uygulaması

    Buhar gücünün Heron tarafından uygulamasından sonra 1679 yılında ilk faydalı uygulama Fransız fizikçi Denis Papin‘den (1647-1712) geldi. İçinde suyun kaynadığı ve biriken buharın suyun kaynama noktasını yükselttiği sıkıca kapanan bir kapağı olan düdüklü tencere icat edilmişti. Papin’in dikkat ettiği şey daha yüksek ısıda kemikler yumuşuyor ve et daha çabuk pişiyordu. Tencereye buhar basıncının çok yükselmesine karşın bir de güvenlik vanası eklenmişti.

    Buhar makineleri

     
    Buhar motorunun çalışması

    Savery makinesi

    1698 yılında, İngiliz mühendis Thomas Savery (1650-1715), ilk ticari olarak satılan buhar makinesini yapmıştır. Bu makine maden ocağından suyu dışarı atmak amacıyla kullanılmıştır. Madencinin Arkadaşı olarak tanınmaktaydı.

    Çalışma prensibi ise şöyledir:

    Buhar kazanından gelen buhar odacığa dolar. Odacık buhar ile doluyken üzerine soğuk su döküldüğünde suya dönüşen buhar vakum yaratır; böylece odacıktaki su seviyesi yükselir. Vana yardımıyla odaya buhar dolduğunda iş yapılmış olur yani madenden su çekilmiş olur. Bu makinede vanalar insan gücüyle sırayla kapatılıp açılması gerekmektedir.

    Yüksek basınçla çalıştığından o günün teknolojisine göre bu tip bir buharı güvenli biçimde kullanacak düzeyde değildi. Ayrıca gerekli buharı oluşturmak için suyu ısıtmada çok fazla yakıt gerekliydi. Bu tip makinaların öncülü olan Savery’nin makinası verimi düşük olduğundan fazla kullanılmadı fakat kendinden sonra gelen makinalar için temel teşkil etti.
     

    Newcomen makinesi

    • Ana madde:
    Newcomen makinesinin şematik gösterimi
    -Buhar; pembe, su; mavi ile gösterilmiştir.
    -Açık vanalar yeşil, kapalı olanlar kırmızıdır.

    1712' de İngiliz mühendis Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) yeni bir tür buhar makinesi geliştirdi. Bu makinenin Savery Makinesinden en büyük avantajı pistonun bir zincir yardımıyla tahterevalli benzeri bir tür kaldıraca tutturulmuş olmasıydı. Bu kaldıracın diğer ucu ise bir tür tulumbaya bağlanmıştı. Piston silindirin en üst noktasında iken silindirin içine gönderilen soğuk su buharı yoğunlaştırıyordu. Böylece atmosferik basınç pistona aşağıya doğru kuvvet uyguladığı anda su madenden yükseliyordu. Buhar pistona dolunca bu çevrim tekrar ediyordu. Ayrıca daha az tehlikeliydi. Yine de makine istenilen verime ulaşamamış ve yakıt tüketimi azalmamıştı.

    Watt makinesi

    1764 yılında bozulan Newcomen makinalarından biri onarılması için İskoçyalı mühendis James Watt'a verildi.Makinayı onaran watt aynı zamanda randımanı düşük bu makineyi geliştirmek de istedi. Arkadaşı İskoç kimyacı Joseph Black'tan gizli ısıyı  öğrenmiş olan Watt aynı odayı sürekli ısıtıp soğutmanın ne kadar israflı bir şey olduğunu anladı ve aklına iki oda yapmak fikri geldi. Biri sürekli sıcak, diğeri de sürekli soğuk tutulacaktı. Buhar işini yaparken sıcak odada bulunacaktı ve su haline getirilmesi gerektiğinde supaplar sistemiyle soğuk odaya alınacaktı.

    Watt 1781 yılına gelindiğinde makinasını iyice geliştirmiş ve pistonun ileri geri hareketini ustalıkla bir tekerleğin dönme hareketine çeviren mekanik aletleride icat etmişti. Watt'ın makine tarihi ve makine mühendisliğine katkıları çok büyük önem taşır.

    Buhar türbinleri

    1884 yılında İngiliz mühendis Charles Algernon Parsons (1854-1931) ilk başarılı buhar türbinini yapmıştır. Bu sayede yüksek hızlı gemi yapımı kolaylaşmış. jeneratörlerin de kullanılması kolaylaşmıştır.

    Buhar makinesinin verimi

    James Watt’ın geliştirmesine rağmen buhar makinalarının verimi halen %7 civarında idi kalan %93 boşa giden ısı olarak kayboluyordu.

    Buhar makinasının verimini inceleyen ilk kişi Fransız fizikçi Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot’tur (1796-1832) 1824 yılında yayımladığı Ateşin Tahrik Kuvveti Üzerine isimli kitabında buhar makinasının maksimum veriminin en sıcak halindeki buhar ile en soğuk halindeki suyun sıcaklığı arasındaki farka bağlı olduğunu gösterdi. Carnot ısı ve işin birbirlerine dönüşmesi yolunu ilk olarak ele alan kişi olduğundan Termodinamik biliminin kurucusu kabul edilmektedir.

    Buharlı ulaşım araçları

    Buharlı Gemiler

     1787 yılına kadar buharlı motorlar sadece su pompalarını ve tekstil makinalarını çalıştırmak için kullanılmıştı. 22 Ağustos 1787 yılında ise Amerikalı mucit John Fitch (1743-1798) ilk vapuru Delaware Nehri’ne indirmiştir. Bir süre Philaderphia ile Trenton arasında düzenli vapur yolculuğu yapılmasını sağlamıştır.Fakat Fitch ticari anlamda başarı kazanamamıştır. 1807 yılına gelindiğinde ise yine Amerikalı mucit olan Robert Fulton saatte 8 km hızla giden adını Clermont koyduğu kırk metre uzunluğundaki vapurları Hudson Nehri’nde işletmeye başladı.  Bu sefer Fitch’in tersine ticari başarı kazanıldığından Fulton vapuların mucidi kabul edilmektedir. 1809 yılında ise Moses Rogers komutası altındaki Phoenix okyonusa açılan ilk buharlı vapur oldu. 1811 yılında Mississippi Nehri üzerinde işleyen ilk gemi New Orleans faaliyete geçti.


    Okyanusu aşan ilk gemi ise 1819 yılında Georgia Savannah’tan İngiltere’deki Liverpool’a beşbuçuk haftada ulaşan Savannah isimli gemi oldu. Yolculuğun büyük kısmı yelkenlerin açılması ile bitirildiğinden aslında buharlı gemi sayılmazdı.

    1827 yılında Türbinlerin ve gemi pervanesinin keşfedilmesi sonucu , pervanenin yan çarktan daha etkili olduğu anlaşıldı ve gemi teknolojisi hızla gelişti

    Buharlı Lokomotifler

     
    Buharlı lokomotifin çalışması

    İlk buharlı motorların gemilerde kullanılmasından sonra 1804 yılında Richard Trevithick bir vagonun şasesi üzerine sabit bir buhar motoru yerleştirerek dünyanın ilk buharlı lokomotifini üretti. Yaptığı özel yolda lokomotifini hareket ettirerek gösteri düzenlemiş fakat bundan ticari bir kazanç elde edememiştir.


    1825 yılına gelindiğinde ise İngiliz mucit George Stephenson geliştirilmiş buharlı motorlardan faydalanarak ilk buharlı lokomotif denebilecek ve adına Rocket dediği aracı yaptı.

    Buharlı otomobil[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

    Bilinen ilk örnek Fransız mühendis Nicolas Joseph Cugnot tarafından yapılan Fardier’dir. Nicholas Joseph Cugnot küçük ölçekte yaptığı iki kazanlı Newcomen makinesini üç tekerlekli bir arabaya yükleyerek 1769 yılında deneme yapmıştır. Fakat buharlaşma yoluyla azalan kazan suyunu yenileyecek bir sistem olmadığından araç 15 dakikada bir durmak ve su ikmali yapıp suyun kaynamasını beklemek gerekmekteydi.

    Buharlı otomobil


    Bilinen ilk örnek Fransız mühendis Nicolas Joseph Cugnot tarafından yapılan Fardier’dir. Nicholas Joseph Cugnot küçük ölçekte yaptığı iki kazanlı Newcomen makinesini üç tekerlekli bir arabaya yükleyerek 1769 yılında deneme yapmıştır. Fakat buharlaşma yoluyla azalan kazan suyunu yenileyecek bir sistem olmadığından araç 15 dakikada bir durmak ve su ikmali yapıp suyun kaynamasını beklemek gerekmekteydi.

    Buhar makinesi tipleri


    Buhar makineleri iki ana başlıkta sınıflandırılabilir.
    •1 ) Teknoloji kullanımına göre
    1.1) Pistonlu buhar makinaları

    1.2) Türbinli buhar makinaları

    2) Uygulama alanlarına göre
    2.1) Durağan (Sabit) buhar makineleri

    2.1.1) Sarımlı,dönen milli motorlar ve frekanslı olarak duran ve tersine hareket edebilen basit uygulamalar

    .2.1.2) Nadiren duran ve tersine hareket ihtiyacı olmayan güç sağlayan motorlar.(Tüm termal güç istasyonları, değirmenler, fabrikalar.)

    2.2) Araç Motorları

    2.2.1) Buharlı bot ve gemiler

    2.2.2) Buharlı lokomotif

    2.2.3) Buharlı otomobil

    2.2.4) Buharlı iş makineleri

    2.2.4.1) Buharlı yol silindiri

    2.2.4.2) Buharlı traktör

  • The Importance of Steam Meter

    In some brands and models, the steam counter makes a vapor count according to the evaporation.

    Affected by vibration. Steam meter for a healthy measurement It is ideal for the vapor velocity between 70 and 110 m / sec.

    In some brands and models, the steam counter makes a vapor count according to the evaporation. Affected by vibration. Steam meter for a healthy measurement It is ideal for the vapor velocity between 70 and 110 m / sec.

  • Vapor Calculation for Drying Plant
    Let's tell you how many drying units will be set up in the production process and we will determine your capacity and choose the most suitable capacity for you. (please mail)